Difference Between Private and Public Company in Company Law

Difference Between Private and Public Company in Company Law


In company law, two common types of companies are private and public companies. It is crucial to understand the distinctions between these entities to make informed decisions regarding business structure and compliance. This article aims to provide a clear and concise explanation of the key differences between private and public companies.

  1. Ownership and Shareholders

One of the primary differences lies in the ownership structure and the number of shareholders. A private company requires a minimum of two shareholders and can have a maximum of 200 shareholders. On the other hand, a public company must have at least seven shareholders, and there is no maximum limit on the number of shareholders.

  1. Capital and Fundraising

Private companies cannot invite the public to subscribe to their shares or raise funds from the general public through an Initial Public Offering (IPO). Their shares are typically held by a small group of founders, friends, and family members. Public companies, however, can issue shares to the public, allowing them to raise capital through the stock market.

  1. Share Transferability

Private companies have more restrictions on the transfer of shares. Shareholders’ consent is often required for transferring shares, and there may be specific procedures outlined in the articles of association. In contrast, public companies offer more liquidity as their shares are freely transferable, subject to compliance with applicable regulations.

  1. Minimum Capital Requirement

Private companies do not have a prescribed minimum capital requirement, giving them flexibility in terms of initial capital. Public companies, on the other hand, must have a minimum authorized and paid-up capital as per legal requirements. The specific amount varies depending on the country’s regulations.

  1. Disclosure and Transparency

Public companies have stringent disclosure and reporting obligations to ensure transparency. They must comply with various regulatory requirements, such as filing regular financial statements, disclosing interests of directors and officers, and providing information to shareholders and the public. Private companies have fewer disclosure obligations, maintaining a higher level of privacy.

  1. Corporate Governance

Public companies place greater emphasis on corporate governance due to their larger size and wider impact on stakeholders. They have a board of directors with independent directors to ensure proper oversight and accountability. Private companies have more flexibility in structuring their governance framework, often with a smaller board comprising shareholders and key individuals.

  1. Legal Compliance and Regulation

Public companies face more legal and regulatory compliance obligations due to their public nature. They must adhere to strict securities laws, stock exchange regulations, and other applicable company laws. Private companies have fewer regulatory burdens, granting them greater operational flexibility and less scrutiny.


Understanding the difference between private and public companies is essential in company law to determine the most suitable structure for your business. Private companies offer more privacy and flexibility in terms of ownership, share transferability, and fundraising. Public companies, on the other hand, have more stringent compliance requirements, transparency, and access to capital markets. Consulting with legal professionals or company secretaries can provide further guidance based on your specific business needs. By comprehending these distinctions, entrepreneurs can make informed decisions when choosing the appropriate company type and navigate legal and regulatory requirements successfully.

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