Understanding the basics of GST

Understanding the basics of GST

GST, or Goods and Services Tax, is an indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services in India. It is a comprehensive tax reform that replaced multiple indirect taxes like excise duty, service tax, VAT, and others. The implementation of GST aims to streamline the taxation system, promote ease of doing business, and create a unified market across the country. Here are some key points to understand the basics of GST:

  1. GST Structure:

GST is classified into two main components:

  • Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST): Collected by the Central Government on intra-state supplies of goods and services.
  • State Goods and Services Tax (SGST): Collected by the State Government on intra-state supplies of goods and services.

Additionally, for inter-state supplies or imports/exports, Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) is levied by the Central Government.

  1. GST Registration:

Businesses with an annual turnover exceeding the specified threshold are required to register for GST. The threshold limit is currently set at Rs. 40 lakhs for most states, except for special category states where it is Rs. 20 lakhs. GST registration provides a unique GSTIN (Goods and Services Tax Identification Number) to the registered businesses.

  1. GST Rates:

Goods and services are classified under various GST rate slabs, namely 0%, 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%. The rates applicable to specific goods and services are determined by the GST Council based on factors like necessity, demand, and revenue implications.

  1. Input Tax Credit:

One of the significant advantages of GST is the availability of input tax credit. Registered businesses can claim input tax credit for the GST paid on their purchases of goods and services, which can be set off against the GST liability on their sales. This helps prevent the cascading effect of taxes and reduces the overall tax burden.

  1. GST Returns and Compliance:

Registered businesses are required to file periodic GST returns, which include details of their sales, purchases, and tax payments. The frequency of filing returns depends on the turnover and nature of business. Non-compliance with GST provisions can lead to penalties and legal consequences.

  1. Threshold Exemptions:

Small businesses with a turnover below the threshold limit may be eligible for composition scheme. Under this scheme, they can pay a fixed percentage of turnover as GST and are relieved from detailed compliances. However, they are not eligible for input tax credit.

  1. E-Way Bill:

For movement of goods exceeding a certain value, an e-way bill needs to be generated. This electronic document contains details of the goods being transported and is mandatory for inter-state and intra-state movement in some cases. It helps ensure compliance and track the movement of goods.

  1. GST Audit:

For businesses crossing a specific threshold, a GST audit may be required. This involves a detailed examination of GST compliance, records, and financial statements by a qualified professional to ensure accuracy and adherence to the GST laws.


GST has significantly transformed the Indian tax landscape by simplifying the taxation system, enhancing transparency, and fostering economic growth. Understanding the basics of GST, including its structure, registration, rates, input tax credit, returns, compliance, exemptions, e-way bills, and audit, is crucial for businesses and individuals to effectively navigate the GST regime. It is advisable to consult with tax professionals and stay updated with the latest GST laws and regulations to ensure proper compliance and optimize the benefits offered by GST.

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